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Roman Legion

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Glory of Rome - When Roman Legions march into Jerusalem

Even in the course of a military campaign, the size of a Roman legion varied because, unlike the case of the Persian Immortals, there wasn't always someone waiting in the wings to take over when a legionary (​ miles legionarius) was slain, taken prisoner, or incapacitated in battle. Roman legions varied over time not only in size but in number. A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") normally indicates the basic ancient Roman army unit recruited specifically from Roman citizens. The organization of legions varied greatly over time but they were typically composed of up to 5, soldiers, originally divided into 10 maniples and later into cohorts each with soldiers. Top 10 Ancient Roman Legions 1. Augusta Legion 2. Germanica Legion Founded by Julius Caesar to bolster his warring campaign against Pompey, the Legio I Germanica or 3. Hispana Triumphalis Legion Originally known as the Legio IX Hispania, the Hispana Legion was amongst the first 4. Macedonica. A Roman legion was the basic military unit of the ancient Roman army in the period of the late Roman Republic and the Roman Empire. It was roughly equivalent to the modern word division. In the plural, the legions, it may mean the entire Roman army. A legion was about 5, men in several cohorts of heavy infantry (legionaries). They were further divided into: Scholae: the personal guard of the Emperor, created by Constantine I to replace the Praetorian Guard; Palatinae: "palace troops" were the highest ranked units, created by Constantine I after he disbanded the Praetorian Comitatenses: regular field units, some were. Eine römische Legion war ein selbstständig operierender militärischer Großverband im Römischen Reich, der meist aus 30Soldaten schwerer Infanterie und einer kleinen Abteilung Legionsreiterei mit etwa Mann bestand. Die folgenden römischen Legionen sind bekannt, haben aber nicht alle zur gleichen Zeit Map of Roman legions by itchycooparkfestival.com Eine römische Legion (lateinisch legio, von legere „lesen“ im Sinne von: „​auslesen“, Commons: Roman legions – Sammlung von Bildern, Videos und. Spiele jetzt Roman Legion bei Platincasino. Bei uns findest Du auch Explodiac von Balli Wulff und weitere Spiele von Merkur und Blueprint. Jetzt ausprobieren!
Roman Legion
Roman Legion

The 12th Fulminata had a thunderbolt as its emblem. Once the majority of conflicts were over and the legion had helped Caesar achieve an all-round victory in grabbing power over imperial Rome, the legionaries were pensioned off and given lands in Parma.

However, the legion must have been levied again sometimes later as this unit has been documented as guarding the crossing of the Euphrates River as late as the beginning of the fifth century.

The Cyrenaica Legion was active in different shapes and sizes from its formation in 31 BC all the way up to the early years of the fifth century.

From the Battle of Actium in 31 BC to one of the many Jewish revolts between and AD, the Cyrenaica Legion had an influential presence during many major events in ancient Roman history.

The name could also have been given to mark some of its notable achievements in that region. Regardless of the mystery shrouding its inception, Legio III Cyrenaica was definitely used by Emperor Augustus to maintain control over contemporary Egypt which he has annexed around 30 BC.

From then on, historians state that the legion was under the command of either Lepidus or Marc Antony, both being members of the Second Triumvirate.

The legion went on to stay in Egypt for more than a century and a half and became so adapted to Egyptian culture that many Cyrenaica legionaries started to worship the Egyptian god Ammon.

Many of the conservative Roman republicans had fled to Greece. The Legio IV got its first taste of action in the battles of Dyrrhachium and Pharsalus when Caesar scored a decisive victory over Pompey.

The legion then settled in the province of Macedonia whereupon it became known as the Macedonica Legion. Soon, Caesar enlisted the Macedonica Legion to fight in his campaign against the Parthians.

But right around this time, he was brutally murdered and plans for the Parthian invasion were called off. Mark Antony seized the opportunity to tap in the Macedonica force and actively involved it in his campaigns in eastern Italy.

It has been documented that the Roman commander was particularly impressed by the bravery and heroics of Legio IX in the battle against the Nervians.

When Caesar fell, the legion was again levied into the Roman military by his heir Octavian. Commander Octavian immediately tasked it with annexing the city of Sicily which was then under the control of his arch enemy Sextus Pompeius.

The Legio Hispana Triumphalis, along with other legions enlisted in the campaign by Octavian, soon brought the whole of Sicily under Roman rule.

Once Sicily was annexed, Octavian declared himself the emperor and became Augustus. He also sent the Ninth Legion to maintain control of the Balkans.

It was rather narrow and typically decorated with bronze strips, that were sometimes tin-plated, all the way around. While Romans considered the wearing of pants or trousers to be against any standard code of dress, legionaries in cold climates were allowed to wear wool or leather skin tight trousers that reached just below the knee.

Hard tack and corn rations. Baked rock hard to remove all moisture, it could therefore last a long time without going off, making it perfect for long military campaigns.

Heavy military sandals that used iron hob-nails as treads, similar to modern day athletic cleats. The leather thongs continued half way up the shin and tied there, and in cold weather could be stuffed with wool or fur.

Eventually these would be replaced by a heavier style of actual boot. Caligae was also the term from which the Emperor Gaius Caligula got his nickname.

He was the son of the enormously popular Legate Germanicus and accompanied his Legions on several northern campaigns.

As a boy the Legionaries saw him as a good luck mascot and called him Caligula for "Little Boots". Metal armor may provide much needed protection, but it can be extremely uncomfortable, particularly when worn for long periods of time.

The focale was a scarf made of wool or linen, worn to keep the metal of the armor from scraping and chafing the neck. Though there were many types this was the most common helmet, the Imperial Gallic along with the Imperial Italic.

They were generally made of bronze with iron trim, with a projecting piece shielded the neck and a smaller ridge fastened at the front for protection of the face.

At the sides were large cheek pieces hinged at the top. A leather tent, usually made out of calfskin or goatskin, which would protect the soldiers from the elements when sleeping.

These would often sleep between six and eight soldiers each. The large Roman shield, which was curved to fit the body. They were made from thin sheets of wood, glued together so that the grain of each piece was at right angles to the piece next to it.

The whole was bound around the edges with wrought iron or bronze and the center was hollowed out on the inside for the handgrip and protected by metal bands.

On the outside the surface was covered in leather, on which was fastened gilded or silvered decoration, probably in bronze.

Each cohort had different color schemes aid recognition during a battle. The shields also carried the name of the soldier and that of his centurion.

On the march, the shield was hung by a strap over the left shoulder. The apron consisted of a number of leather thongs to which were riveted metal plates, and weighted with bronze.

It could have been either decorative, protection for the genitals or a combination of both. The standard tunic worn over linen undergarments and underneath a legionary's armor.

These were red, it is thought, so that the enemy would not be able to easily see a legionary bleed if wounded during battle.

Chain mail that was used extensively throughout Roman history and well after its fall. It provided excellent protection and flexibility, but was very heavy and time consuming to make.

Plate Armor. A name translated by modern scholars, as we don't know what the Romans actually called it.

This armor was made up of many pieces of laminated iron all bound together to form a very flexible, strong and the most effective of Roman body protection.

Every legion had a large baggage train which included mules 1 mule for every 8 legionaries only for the soldiers' equipment. To make this easier, he issued each legionary a cross stick to carry their loads on their shoulders.

The soldiers were nicknamed Marius' Mules because of the amount of gear they had to carry themselves.

This arrangement allowed for the possibility for the supply train to become temporarily detached from the main body of the legion, thus greatly increasing the army's speed when needed.

A typical legion of this period had 5, legionaries as well as a large number of camp followers, servants and slaves.

Legions could contain as many as 6, fighting men when including the auxiliaries, although much later in Roman history the number was reduced to 1, to allow for greater mobility.

Numbers would also vary depending on casualties suffered during a campaign; Julius Caesar 's legions during his campaign in Gaul often only had around 3, men.

Tactics were not very different from the past, but their effectiveness was largely improved because of the professional training of the soldiers.

A re-enactor, showing a Roman miles , 2nd century. After the Marian reforms, and throughout the history of Rome's Late Republic, the legions played an important political role.

By the 1st century BC the threat of the legions under a demagogue was recognized. Governors were not allowed to leave their provinces with their legions.

When Julius Caesar broke this rule, leaving his province of Gaul and crossing the Rubicon into Italy, he precipitated a constitutional crisis.

This crisis and the civil wars which followed brought an end to the Republic and led to the foundation of the Empire under Augustus in 27 BC.

The Roman empire under Hadrian ruled —38 , showing the legions deployed in Generals, during the recent Republican civil wars, had formed their own legions and numbered them as they wished.

During this time, there was a high incidence of Gemina twin legions, where two legions were consolidated into a single organization and was later made official and put under a legatus and six duces.

At the end of the civil war against Mark Antony , Augustus was left with around fifty legions, with several double counts multiple Legio Xs for instance.

For political and economic reasons, Augustus reduced the number of legions to 28 which diminished to 25 after the Battle of Teutoburg Forest , in which 3 legions were completely destroyed by the Germanics.

Beside streamlining the army Augustus also regulated the soldiers' pay. At the same time, he greatly increased the number of auxiliaries to the point where they were equal in number to the legionaries.

He also created the Praetorian Guard along with a permanent navy where served the liberti , or freed slaves. Augustus' military policies proved sound and cost effective, and were generally followed by his successors.

These emperors would carefully add new legions, as circumstances required or permitted, until the strength of the standing army stood at around 30 legions hence the wry remark of the philosopher Favorinus that It is ill arguing with the master of 30 legions.

With each legion having 5, legionaries usually supported by an equal number of auxiliary troops, the total force available to a legion commander during the Pax Romana probably ranged from 11, downwards, with the more prestigious legions and those stationed on hostile borders or in restive provinces tending to have more auxiliaries.

Some legions may have even been reinforced at times with units making the associated force near 15,—16, or about the size of a modern division.

Throughout the imperial era, the legions played an important political role. Their actions could secure the empire for a usurper or take it away.

For example, the defeat of Vitellius in the Year of the Four Emperors was decided when the Danubian legions chose to support Vespasian.

In the empire, the legion was standardized, with symbols and an individual history where men were proud to serve. The legion was commanded by a legatus or legate.

Aged around thirty, he would usually be a senator on a three year appointment. Immediately subordinate to the legate would be six elected military tribunes — five would be staff officers and the remaining one would be a noble heading for the Senate originally this tribune commanded the legion.

There would also be a group of officers for the medical staff, the engineers, record-keepers, the praefectus castrorum commander of the camp and other specialists such as priests and musicians.

There is no evidence to suggest that legions changed in form before the Tetrarchy , although there is evidence that they were smaller than the paper strengths usually quoted.

The final form of the legion originated with the elite legiones palatinae created by Diocletian and the Tetrarchs.

These were infantry units of around 1, men rather than the 5,, including cavalry, of the old Legions. The earliest legiones palatinae were the Lanciarii , Joviani , Herculiani and Divitenses.

The 4th century saw a very large number of new, small legions created, a process which began under Constantine II. In addition to the elite palatini , other legions called comitatenses and pseudocomitatenses , along with the auxilia palatina , provided the infantry of late Roman armies.

The Notitia Dignitatum lists 25 legiones palatinae , 70 legiones comitatenses , 47 legiones pseudocomitatenses and auxilia palatina in the field armies, and a further 47 legiones in the frontier armies.

The names also suggest that many new legions were formed from vexillationes or from old legions. In addition there were 24 vexillationes palatini, 73 vexillationes comitatenses; other units in the Eastern limitanei and in the Western limitanei.

According to the late Roman writer Vegetius ' De Re Militari , each century had a ballista and each cohort had an onager , giving the legion a formidable siege train of 59 Ballistae and 10 Onagers each manned by 10 libritors artillerymen and mounted on wagons drawn by oxen or mules.

In addition to attacking cities and fortifications, these would be used to help defend Roman forts and fortified camps castra as well.

They would even be employed on occasion, especially in the later Empire, as field artillery during battles or in support of river crossings.

Despite a number of reforms, the Legion system survived the fall of the Western Roman Empire , and was continued in the Eastern Roman Empire until around 7th century, when reforms begun by Emperor Heraclius to counter the increasing need for soldiers around the Empire resulted in the Theme system.

Aside from the rank and file legionary who received the base wage of 10 asses a day or denarii a year , the following list describes the system of officers which developed within the legions from the Marian reforms BC until the military reforms of Diocletian c.

The rank of centurion was an officer rank that included many grades, meaning centurions had very good prospects for promotion.

This was the result of the military reforms of Emperors Diocletian and Constantine I , and of further developments during the 4th century.

The legions were identified by Roman numerals , though the spelling sometimes differed from the modern "standard". Usually they were authorized by the Roman Senate , and were later disbanded.

Gaius Marius ' reforms transformed legions into standing units, which could remain in being for several years, or even decades. This became necessary to garrison the Republic's now far-flung territories.

Legionaries started large-scale recruiting of volunteer soldiers enlisted for a minimum term of six years and a fixed salary, although conscription was still practiced.

The property requirements were abolished by Marius, so that the bulk of recruits were henceforth from the landless citizens, who would be most attracted to the paid employment and land offered after their service.

In the last century of the Republic, proconsuls governing frontier provinces became increasingly powerful. Their command of standing legions in distant and arduous military campaigns resulted in the allegiance of those units transferring from the Roman state to themselves.

These imperatores lit: victorious generals, from the title imperator they were hailed with by their troops frequently fell out with each other and started civil wars to seize control of the state.

In this context, the imperatores raised many legions that were not authorised by the Senate, sometimes having to use their own resources.

As civil wars were resolved, many of these "private" units would be disbanded, only for more to be raised to fight the next civil war.

The legions included in the following list had a long enough history to be somehow remarkable. Most of them were levied by Julius Caesar and later included into Octavian 's army, some of them were levied by Marc Antony.

The numbering of the legions is confusing, since several legions shared the same number with others. Augustus numbered the legions he founded himself from I, but also inherited numbers from his predecessors.

Each emperor normally numbered the legions he raised himself starting from I. However, even this practice was not consistently followed.

For example, Vespasian kept the same numbers as before for legions he raised from disbanded units. Trajan 's first legion was numbered XXX because there were 29 other legions in existence at the time it was raised; but the second Trajanic legion was given the sequential number II.

These three legions are without titles, suggesting that in disgrace their titles may have been deliberately forgotten or left unmentioned.

As a result of this somewhat chaotic evolution, the legion's title became necessary to distinguish between legions with the same number.

Legions often carried several titles, awarded after successive campaigns, normally by the ruling emperor e. XII Fulminata was also awarded: paterna fatherly , victrix victorious , antiqua venerable , certa constans reliable, steadfast and Galliena Gallienus '.

Pia fidelis loyal and faithful , fidelis constans and others were titles awarded to several legions, sometimes several times to the same legion.

Only the most established, commonly used titles are displayed on this table. Legions bearing the personal name of an emperor, or of his gens clan e.

When Caesar fell, the legion was again levied into the Roman military by his heir Octavian. Password recovery. Download as PDF Printable version. Many of the legions founded before 40 BC were still active until at least the fifth century, Www.Solitairekostenlos.De Legio V Macedonicawhich was founded by Augustus in 43 BC and was in Egypt in the seventh century during the Islamic conquest of Egypt. It is probable that more sturdy types of spear of the same name were available for defense Poopen.De cavalry in formation such as the turtle. 9/23/ · According to 21st-century Roman military historian and former National Guard officer Jonathan Roth, two ancient historians of Rome, Polybius (a Hellenistic Greek) and Livy (from the Augustan era), describe two sizes for Roman legions of the Republican itchycooparkfestival.com size is for the standard Republican legion and the other, a special one for emergencies. A Roman legion was the basic military unit of the ancient Roman army in the period of the late Roman Republic and the Roman itchycooparkfestival.com was roughly equivalent to the modern word itchycooparkfestival.com the plural, the legions, it may mean the entire Roman army. A legion was about 5, men in several cohorts of heavy infantry (legionaries). It was usually accompanied by attached units of auxiliaries, who. Roman organization was more flexible than those of many opponents. Over time, the legions effectively handled challenges ranging from cavalry, to guerrillas, and to siege warfare. Roman discipline (cf. decimation (Roman army)), organization and systematization sustained .
Roman Legion
Roman Legion
Roman Legion The fourth class could afford no armour; perhaps bearing a small shield and Candy Bubble Shooter with spear and javelin. A large round ball at the end helped with the balance. By the 4th century adwith the empire defending its many fortified border outposts, as many as 10 catapults and 60 ballistae were assigned to each legion. The cohorts came to form the basic tactical unit of the legions. Despite Mma Live number of reforms, the Legion system survived the fall of the Western Roman Empireand was continued in the Eastern Roman Empire until around 7th century, when reforms begun by Emperor Heraclius to counter the increasing need for soldiers around the Empire resulted in the Theme system. Main articles: Roman armyMilitary history of ancient Romeand Structural history of Winnings Casino Roman military. Learn More in these related Britannica Exodus.Io. Main articles: Roman armyRoman Legion Roman armyand Roman legion. Roman Sizzling Hott had to purchase Jewel Match 3 own equipment. The role of allied legions would eventually be taken up by contingents of allied auxiliary troops, called Auxilia. The Centuria that each Centurion commanded was a direct reflection of his rank. Roman army unit types and rankslegionsauxiliariesgenerals. Rome did not have a standing army until the reforms of Gaius Marius about BC. These men twenty maniples of men, and ten maniples of 60 mentogether with about Carcasson Spiel and cavalry gave the mid Republican "manipular" legion a nominal strength of about men. Roman Legion Severus: The African Emperor.

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